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For Israelis the Nakba is a footnote. For Palestinians it's the heart of the conflict

Israelis tend to view the expulsions of the 1948 war as a small, local affair that was quite restrained compared to the Nazi genocide. For Palestinians, it is an ongoing dispossession.

By Sam Freed

Palestinian refugee children seen in a makeshift school in Nablus, West Bank, 1948. (Hanini/CC BY-SA 3.0)

Palestinian refugee children seen in a makeshift school in Nablus, West Bank, 1948. (Hanini/CC BY-SA 3.0)

To large portions of the Jewish Israeli public, the Nakba was small event — an historical side note. To most Palestinians, on the other hand, it is a huge, exceptionally brutal, and vastly important part of their history. In order to understand why there is such a vast disparity in the way the Nakba is perceived by Israelis and Palestinians, despite very little contention as to the objective size of the event — 700,000 people were deported and dispossessed, which today we would call ethnic cleansing — one must look back several hundred years.

Nothing motivates wars like ideas on paper. The printing press was invented in the mid 1400s in Germany. Rebellions against the Catholic Church were not infrequent during that period, but after the printing press was available such rebellions spread much faster. The most prominent of those was the Protestant Reformation, which led to centuries of internal religious and ideological wars in Europe, ending only in 1945. The number of victims is estimated at around 100 million.

Meanwhile in the Ottoman Empire the situation was quite different. Most of its military efforts were in the Balkans, directed towards Catholic Austria. In 1485, Sultan Bayzid II banned the printing press because the Arabic letters of the Qu’ran were considered too sacred to be used mechanically. The result was 500 years of relative peace in the Muslim world – quite a contrast to the constant bloodletting of religious wars in Europe.

The Ottomans controlled the Middle East by granting the local population maximal self-government. This included having a mukhtar (chief) run each village according to its own traditions. The result was that the Ottomans were able to control the entire area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River with only a few hundred soldiers. While in Europe tens of millions were being killed in Christian-on-Christian violence, the first wars amongst Muslims involving over one million deaths happened quite recently: the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1970 and the Iran-Iraq War in 1979.

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The Zionist leadership that created Israel was virtually entirely of European origin. In the first half of the 20th century, the numbers of deportees and the dispossessed in Europe was high: in 1923 there were massive “population exchanges” between Greece and Turkey, in 1947 the British arranged for the partition of India, and after the Second World War eastern and central-European states expelled eight million ethnic and cultural Germans who lived in those countries for centuries. As a culturally European society, it is unsurprising that the Israelis did not see the expulsion of 700,000 people as exceptional or even uncivilized.

On the other hand, prior to the Nakba — the worst disaster in the collective memory of Palestinians — was the punitive exile of 10,000 men to Egypt in 1834. This was occasioned by the Palestinians refusing to join the Egyptian Army during the Egyptian revolt against the Ottomans. In contrast to the the European vantage point, the expulsion and dispossession of 700,000 people, including women, the elderly, and children, was seen as an act of barbarism of unprecedented magnitude. The disaster of 1948 was 70-times larger than the largest calamity in local popular memory at the time.

Additionally, Israelis and Palestinians view the Nakba differently when it comes to the dimension of time. As far as Israel is concerned the expulsions were over by the end of the war and cemented with the refusal to return refugees after the war. For the Palestinians, the Nakba is ongoing. The presence of the refugee camps is an ongoing tragedy, as is every time a Palestinian is dispossessed of land or a settlement for Jews only is set up on previously Palestinian land.

Palestinian citizens of Israel take part in the Return March, held at the destroyed village of Khubbeiza, to mark Nakba Day, May 9, 2019. (Mati Milstein)

Palestinian citizens of Israel take part in the Return March, held at the destroyed village of Khubbeiza, to mark Nakba Day, May 9, 2019. (Mati Milstein)

This ongoing Nakba peaked in during the war of 1967 but has continued in waves since 1948 through the expropriation of land in the Galilee and in the Negev, the ongoing tragedy of the “unrecognized villages,” and the ongoing construction of Jewish-only settlements in both the West Bank and Israel proper. For Palestinians, all these processes are the same Nakba: an ongoing dispossession and exile of Palestinians from their ancestral land.

For many Israelis, the Nakba was a small, local affair that was quite restrained in comparison to the mass murder of the Nazis in Europe. No matter what you call it, the Nakba is a founding event of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Seeking a mutual understanding of how the two sides see it so differently is a prerequisite for any rapprochement between the two nations.

Dr. Sam Freed is a researcher at the University of Sussex, and teaches at the Hebrew University. He is also an occasional human rights activist. This article was first published in Hebrew on Local Call. Read it here.

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    COMMENTS

    1. Lewis from Afula

      Again, no mention of the Jewish Nakba !
      Why am I not surprised ?

      Reply to Comment
      • Sam Freed

        “Jewish Nakba”? That is a new concept to me. Elaborate.

        Reply to Comment
      • Bruce Gould

        @Lewis: Because there appear to be very few Jews who want to go back to where they were nakba’d out of? Because many Jews actually chose to leave their countries because they bought into Zionism? Because the Palestinian Nakba is ongoing, the dispossession is continuing right now? Because historical events don’t somehow cancel each other out?

        Reply to Comment
        • itshak Gordine

          The Arabs attacked Israel in 1948, causing many losses in human life and following their defeat many Arabs from Israel fled. Same after the Arab aggression of 1967. One million Jews (including my family) were robbed and driven out of the Arab countries in the 50s and 60s after many sufferings. We have never been compensated. We can not talk about the suffering of some forgetting that of others. So, the author of the article is right: the Nakba, we do not care a bit.

          Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            @Itshak Gordine: You did not have to remind us that you do not care a bit. I’d have fallen off my chair if you ever evinced a shred of genuine empathy for non-Jewish human beings anywhere, never mind the Palestinians. You are all about selfishness and small-minded ethnosupremacism.
            The fact of the matter is that even if we ignore the blithely distorting character of your false capsule summary of 48, 67 and the Jewish flight from Arab countries to Israel (I thought aliyah was always and everywhere a going up, a rising, an elevation, a gift, a great good fortune? What gives?) and even if we employ the empathy you never show others and realize that you view the entire problem through the distorting lens of your own personal family’s story of unjust treatment and misfortune, and even if there were massive compensation that put the whole thing aright, you STILL would insist on annexing the river to the sea and Lording it over the Palestinians because God is your real estate agent and you are a Royal Ha-Levy-ite priest whose sons are destined by glorious hereditary divine right to ascend to make sacrifices on the altar of the third temple in eternal undivided Magic-Land Jerusalem where Jews and only Jews are “sovereign.” And Lewis would STILL insist on the same annexation, and forced mass transfer and/or genocide to boot.
            Which brings us to this: You and Lewis use the “Jewish nakba” as a mere talking point. It’s fake. A phony counterbalancing, a phony equivalence, for all the reasons Bruce lays out.

            Reply to Comment
          • itshak Gordine

            You are the specialist of blah blah, but you are absolutely right on one point: We will always claim the whole of Judea and Samaria because they are part of our historical and religious heritage. Yes, Jerusalem one and indivisible, that of the future third Temple will be Jewish and open to foreign visitors. Regarding aliyah, it is indeed an elevation and a physical and spiritual rise these days. But before that, it was a flight to escape the persecutions, misery and hardships of life caused by the enemies of the Jewish people. Whether it suits you or not, it’s like that.

            Reply to Comment
          • Amir

            What is your heritage when Palestine was under Islamic rule from the 7th century to the 20th century?

            Do you claim the Abassids, Ayyubids, Umeyyads, Mamlouk, Crusaders and Ottoman heritage of Palestine?

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            @Itshak Gordine:

            “We will always claim the whole of Judea and Samaria because they are part of our historical and religious heritage.”

            This depends on the meaning of the word “claim” and you have made clear what you mean by it, Halevy. What is this power-drunk, avaricious, black and white, extremist-national-religious, zero-sum mentality of your “claim”? It is pathological narcissism and race-based fascism. It’s been done before, Halevy. The Germans too thought they were justified by their “heritage” and their “claims” and their sense of grievance. They had every bit the same sense of justification and grievance. The Serbian nationalists too. You are no different. Blah blah, indeed.

            BTW, regarding the Germans and the Israelis today, do see Ilana Hammerman’s analysis that I invited you and others to read, below. History comes round again.

            Reply to Comment
          • Amir

            Poor you… if your family has been kicked it is a direct cause of the Palestinian nakba and not the other way around.

            How was it to feel what Palestinian suffered in 1948?

            Ask compensation from the Haganah, Irgun, Lehi and Stern!

            Reply to Comment
          • itshak Gordine

            Everyone knows what we are claiming. It’s not a mystery to anyone.
            Your way of denying the suffering of the Jewish people caused by the Arab countries is shocking ..

            Reply to Comment
          • João Soeiro

            You say “ the Arabs attacked Israel in 1948 ……etc….” Please, this is historically totally wrong ! Study a little bit with independent documents, get the two sides of the situation, and then speak…..

            Reply to Comment
        • itshak Gordine

          The “Palestinian” nakba is very profitable (UNWRA, donations from Europe, Emirates, etc.). That’s why we keep it alive artificially. The Jews had to fend for themselves and through their efforts they made the desert a prosperous country. The Trump plan will pour billions of dollars into Jordan which is, remember, mostly inhabited by “Palestinians”. Jordan was part of Palestine’s British Mandate.

          Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            The Palestinians are a very industrious and hard working people. Just set them free in their own land with their own state and their own economy and they can make for themselves vastly more than the handouts from all these parties. And greatly benefit Israel’s and the region’s economy in turn. The appalling irony here, Halevy, is that you are yukking it up about work ethics and economic braggadocio and sneering at welfare but it is Israel that long enjoys European welfare that pays the costs of its occupation —in an exploitive, guilt-manipulated, sick relationship (more to follow on that, by Ilana Hammerman)—and it is Israel, modern-day Pharaoh, that suffocates the Palestinian economy at every turn and won’t let the Palestinians work for themselves, and won’t let them be free. Just another entry here by you in the annals of narcissism and hypocrisy.

            Reply to Comment
    2. Ben

      Thank you, very informative and illuminating, provides important perspective. Dispelling a lot of fog and misinformation. This magazine continues to illuminate and inform like no other publication. It is indispensable.

      Reply to Comment
    3. Give me a fucking break!
      This is a hilarious attempt at making the Israeli denial of the Nakba more acceptable. Two-sides-ism at its most ridiculous. Israelis deny/ignore the Nakba because they either think it’s made up by filthy Arabs or completely the Arab-Palestinian leadership’s fault (“they were told to leave by their leaders, they were not forced out!”*) or think Palestinians weren’t the true people of their lands and should be grateful to make place for the Chosen People. I’m certain the author’s ONE reason for Nakba denial is important to some Israeli Jews, but it’s far behind other Zionist justifications. Oh! I almost forgot; foreign settlers don’t typically spend days agonizing over the tragedies of the subhuman beings they kicked out of their homes.

      First, it’s a bit of a humongous stretch to blame all the European conflicts between 1454 and 1945 on the printing press, and the Ottoman Empire’s relative peace on the ban on printing presses (especially since the Near East became much more literate over the course of the XIXth century, and the Arabic Renaissance happened). Second, the Ottoman Empire practiced delegation of power, but this also meant there were periodic armed conflicts between the local chieftains and multazims [tax farm owners]). Not to mention that the Nakba was preceded by three genocides and a Young Turks-induced famine in Mount Lebanon, during the first world war.
      So let’s not look for excuses beyond a colonialist mentality and an Israeli history curriculum filled with lies.

      *: as if it wasn’t the Jewish State that prevented them from RETURNING.

      Reply to Comment
      • Lewis from Afula

        Let not forget, the amount of land confiscated by Arabs of Jewish Land was worth about 5 times more than that of the State of Israel. That in itself, shows the need to NOT “accidentally omit” the Jewish Nakba.

        Reply to Comment
        • Bruce Gould

          @Lewis: SO the solution is that everyone should either have the right to demand compensation OR return to the lands they were expelled from. No?

          Reply to Comment
      • Ben

        @Incensed: I think you might be overdrawing the claims Sam Freed is making and therefore railing against a kind of straw man you’re erecting: Sam the Two-Sider. I don’t think there’s any evidence that Freed excludes your elements of indictment, he is just focusing on deeper issues, complexity, subtlety, history. It adds an explanatory element.

        Reply to Comment
        • @BEN You’re right, I suppose if Freed writes in 972mag he’s probably not of the Two-Siders. But still, I believe his arguments are fundamentally wrong. The region did live through massacres and genocides very shortly before the Nakba, namely the Armenian, Assyrian and Greek Pontic Genocide (the first one having made the most noise). It’s not a peaceful region; it’s a region that still has difficulty with letting go of vendettas and honor killings.

          And I suspect the reason he’s giving for Israeli ignorance, the one he’s seeking to explain (difference in perception of the same event’s magnitude), might not be relevant in Israel proper. It’s a great hasbara talking point, I’ve certainly heard it on American campuses, but do Israelis in Israel even take the time to rationalize the Nakba? My impression is that they just shrug it off or deny it outright, for racist reasons. So I thought Freed should’ve tried to explain racism in Israel instead of writing this piece.
          Am I wrong about Israelis? I’m really asking

          Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            @Incensed: OK, you are probably right too if you suggest that Sam Freed maybe tries to explain too much with too little. It’s the black and white, “he’s categorically all wrong” indictment you make that I object to. I think he adds a perspective. I really doubt that Freed thinks these issues are simply determined, versus multi-determined or over-determined by multiple interacting forces; or that he doesn’t see the racism problem as an intrinsic cause of what happened. I think Freed has a point that the European Jews coming in to the land had been hardened by their own experiences in the nightmare of the Europe 1914-1945. and I think his contrast going back 500 years between blood-drenched, incessantly-warring Christian Europe and the relatively peaceful Muslim Palestine is legitimate as a way of understanding both the profound shock of the Nakba to the indigenous Palestinians and the way it also set the stage for—not explains, but set the stage for—the incoming European Jews to give full flower to all the colonial racism and narcissism they brought that you emphasize.

            You are right that the average Jewish Israeli in today’s milieu backing Netanyahu hasn’t a clue about any of this and thinks and feels nothing this complex and could not give a fig about it, and he indeed does just shrug it off or deny it outright for racist reasons. In the end I don’t read Sam Freed as excusing Israeli racism.

            Regarding the Armenian and Greek genocides, I read Freed as making a distinction between the Ottomans facing Christian Europe to the West and the Ottomans facing Muslim Palestine to the East. Freed: “…the numbers of deportees and the dispossessed in Europe was high: in 1923 there were massive “population exchanges” between Greece and Turkey…” That places Greece, Armenia and Turkey in Europe not the Middle East. It is a remarkable fact if true that “the Ottomans were able to control the entire area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River with only a few hundred soldiers.” That fact alone supports the understanding Freed attempts, don’t you think?

            Reply to Comment
          • Sam Freed

            Thanks for actually reading the text, most commentators just get triggered by something and rant…

            Reply to Comment
          • @FREED @BEN
            Ben, we agree on most points. And Mr. Freed, thanks for the article.
            Concerning the peacefulness of the Ottoman Empire, I mostly know about how they ruled Syria and Egypt. They just let the local rulers in place (they did the same in Eastern Europe by the way) and asked them to provide troops and taxes in exchange for relative and unstable autonomy. Also divide-and-conquer; governors (walis) would compete/fight with cheikhs and emirs and descendants of the Prophet’s families for power, with the Sublime Porte acting as an interested referee. So I would take the “hundreds of troops” claim with a grain of salt; that might be referring only to troops who responded directly to the Sultan. (I’m guessing a bit, please tell me if it’s wrong)

            I also take issue with your characterizing of “Christian Europe” and “Muslim Palestine”. Armenians are Middle Eastern, many of them are Lebanese, Syrian or Palestinian. And I’m sure George Habache (leader of the PFLP, the communist 2nd biggest party in the PLO of the 70s) and Nayef Hawatmeh (leader of the DFLP, maoist party), both Greek Orthodox, would disagree with this characterization.
            Muslim Palestinians were not subjected to the anti-Christian violence of the Young Turks, but they surely were conscious of their surroundings.

            Last thing; even if Jews were hardened by their European experience, surely this can’t mean they became psychopaths incapable of seeing the cruelty of their actions. They still cry when one baby’s cradle is broken by a Hamas rocket. They are capable of empathy, but not for people they don’t even consider people.

            Freed doesn’t excuse Israeli racism, sure. I just think his study misses the target.

            Reply to Comment
          • Sam Freed

            All I can say is you can’t deal with all the details in 800 words. This paper shows a particular angle. The axiom is that humans are humans, and the fact that the same event (Nakba) is seen so differently requires an explanation. There is no such gap in the perception
            of the 1973 war, for example. You see no German-Ukrainians asking for a right of return. That means that there is a cultural gap here, worth exploring. This piece is not a summary of all of the history of the near east, just an attempt to answer one question.

            Reply to Comment
    4. itshak Gordine

      The funny thing is that beautiful leftist souls are trying to justify what even Muslim temporal or spiritual leaders are challenging. So Iman Mohamad Tawhidi said on May 26, 2019 at Candace Owens Show:
      “Our Muslim leaders created propaganda against Jewish people for political reasons and the anti-semitic atmosphere embraced it as though they were facts. We have no sacred Islamic sites in Jerusalem. We have sites there revered by Muslims but they are not strictly Islamic sites”. He also said to the French Valeurs actuelles Magazine:
      “As a religious figure, I study the situations and history of the Abrahamic religions.The Jewish nation (the Israelites) existed in the Palestinian region and in Jerusalem before the Muslims.I can not deny the fact that our caliphs Muslims have invaded the region and conquered their land, I believe that the Jewish people have the right to exist and to have a country, “he said in an interview with Valeurs Actuelles in July 2018.

      Reply to Comment
      • Amir

        Haha a shia “imam”? This is what you got? He is neither a Muslim temporal nor a spiritual leader.
        Tawhidi is not recognised as an Imam by either the Australian National Imams Council or its South Australian equivalent

        You should listen to Neturei Karta instead

        Reply to Comment
        • Lewis from Afula

          Imam Mohamad Tawhidi is not recognised by the Australian National Imams Council because he has moderate, liberal views. Anyone who disagrees with Gay-hangings, Apostate-beheadings, honor killings et al., and thinks the religous beliefs need updating gets struck off the official Imams list (or sometimes worse),

          Reply to Comment
          • Amir

            nice try lewis but this council gathers Sunni imams…and your friend is a Shia, who has no authority for Sunnis

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Sunnis, Shias….whatever. Its simply different versions of the same loony tunes BS Religion of Peace (Religion of Human Pieces as others call it).

            I know that particular Australian Imam gets in trouble because he has the audacity to suggest that certain interpretations of the scriptures require updating. Basically, my point stands. He is boycotted by the establishment because he is opposed to honor killings, beheading of Apostates, throwing Gays off roofs.

            The fact that he is Shia and not Sunni does not obscure my essential point.

            Reply to Comment
          • Amir

            @lewis, Sunnis have their imams, Shia does, sames as orthodox jews, haredis etc and “whatever”, you guys have separate synagogues for each rite and nationality and even 2 chief rabbis, one for ashkenazis and one for sepharadims! So it is not whatever because you it doesn’t suit your 5-IQ propaganda

            We don’t have auto-statements like you do, “only democracy in the M-E” and “most morale army”

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Yes, you do not have the “most moral army in the Middle East”.
            You don’t even have one army – you have several different ones killing each other in the same state.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            Halevy, if I were a racist, what I would do is quote one eccentric, or one guy with an opinion, of a given ethnicity and religion, and then generalize and say “this is what those guys in that ethnicity and religion think.” Oh, wait, that’s exactly what you do all the time.

            Shall I quote Moshe Feiglin waxing ecstatic on the glorious “youth body” of National Socialist Germany and then say “that’s what the Jews think, that’s how those Jews are”? Shall I quote Benzti Gopstein and say “that’s just how those Jews are”? Shall I quote Gideon Levy and then say “yup, that’s what the mass of Israelis think”?

            Speaking of Germany and the Jews, have you read Ilana Hammerman yet? It’s a must read for you. No paywall. Dive right in:

            Bundestag Members, Am I anti-Semitic?
            https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/bundestag-members-am-i-anti-semitic-1.7281535

            Reply to Comment
          • itshak Gordine

            This woman is racist. She is for the ethnic cleansing in Judea and Samaria that she wishes to be “Judenrein” according to this article in Haaretz. She presents a pathology that is called self-hatred. Fortunately, the German parliament did not listen to her.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            “Judenrein…self hatred”

            The purest, hoariest cliches. “Judenrein” works as crass propaganda only because it is German. Instead simply say “Jew-free” and the English speaker realizes at once that “that’s not true, the proper, honest words are “free of Israeli nationals” illegally occupying the land. Translate that back into German: “Israelischestaatsangehörigefrei.” Lacks the same punch, don’t it?

            Halevy: “This woman wishes ‘Judea and Samaria’ to be “Israelischestaatsangehörigefrei” according to this article in Haaretz!”

            Yes, Halevy, dear, she does. But they can visit as tourists all they want. Or apply to immigrate to Palestine and apply for Palestinian citizenship. I think a deal can be worked out.

            True, the German parliament did not listen to her. But that’s the point, Halevy, which you specialize in missing. As Hammerman says, “Instead of recognizing your true and weighty responsibility for our fate here, you’ve chosen to cling, with poetic convenience, to your feelings of guilt… Stop this self-righteous embrace of your guilt feelings…by doing the only right thing at this moment – opposing the Israeli government’s policy.”

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Ben:
            Another Haaretz article ?
            Another article from the nonsense newspaper that nobody in Israel ever reads ?
            I am sure you could do better.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            Not better*, but here is a related piece. In sync with Hammerman. (You think we don’t notice that you can’t muster a substantive response to Hammerman? You think we don’t notice how weak it is, how telling it is, for you to simply deride the paper the article is published in?) Enjoy:

            A Win for Deniers of the Occupation
            Haaretz Editorial
            https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/editorial/a-win-for-deniers-of-the-occupation-1.7256989

            ______________
            *Haaretz is Israel’s only serious mainstream paper in the opinion of many, including me. (+972 is even more serious and of ultra-high-quality, one of the best journalism products in the world never mind Israel, but unfortunately, or maybe fortunately, not “mainstream”–yet.) I really don’t care how many people read the Hebrew edition of Haaretz inside Israel except as it helps Haaretz financially, or how “relevant” it is inside Israel. The English language editions of both Haaretz and +972 are what really matter. Noam Sheizaf declared as much when he started +972/Local Call. This is consistent with everything I have said about how change cannot come from inside the cult, but only by forceful outside intervention. Remember the Branch Davidians at Waco every time you lose sight of that fact. I’m not hoping to change you, Lewis, I’m hoping to stay you–stay you and your fellow fanatics from blowing up the place.

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Ben:
            Haaretz is the de facto, official paper of the Israeli Communist Party. It represents nobody but Gideon Levy, Ilan Pappe, Amira Hass and Avrum Berg-type self-haters, Neo-marxists and fellow degenerates.

            Equivalent to the British newspaper, Morning Star, Haaretz is an official organ of permanently Braindead, Leftist Cuckoos. In Israel, it is not taken seriously by anyone under age 67. You must stop using it since it is fu$$ing up your cognitive thinking and rationalization abilities.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            All this shows is that you don’t actually read Haaretz, you just fantasize about it. Time to pony up for a subscription, cheapskate, and get educated. (Would be the first “communist” paper in history to charge a subscription, LoL.)

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Ben:
            Unlike yourself, I do not wish to subsidize the likes of G. Levy, A. Hass, I. Pappe, A. Burg and other creatures of the night.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            You’ve never actually read Amira Hass. You haven’t a clue. You’re all bluster and bitchcakes. You give away your determined ignorance of anything she reports on based on her years of on the ground close observation. You can’t begin to measure up to Amira Hass. Give me one substantive critique of her writing based on anything she actually wrote. I’ll wait.

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Ben:
            Ms Hass is that self-hating Mega-degenerate who lives / lived in Ramalla because she loves peaceful Arabs so much.

            G. Levy is that Commie Crazy who is married to A Norweigan woman. He has a problem with his eyes – be cannot stop blinking. He must blink everytime he lies.

            Pappe is “One of the World’s sloppiest historians”. A pathetic joke of a man who taken to court for lying about Israel’s War of Independence.. He is a master of adopting fake quotes, repeating half-truths and fabricating a fictional past. This Loser is now living in the UK.

            You see I know all your Great Heroes.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            As expected, no substantive critique.

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            Ben summarizes himself, there.

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            David’s irrelevant rant has now been dealt with.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            That was either crazy-comic, gonzo self-satire or somebody impersonating you is making fun of you.

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            That is nothing more than a token, non-response from a weak and confused loser.

            Reply to Comment
          • Ben

            Thanks for the great self-satirizing masterpiece you left over there.

            Reply to Comment
          • Lewis from Afula

            ………..croaks the Haaretz-obsessed Loony Lefty

            Reply to Comment
          • Amir

            @is7aq, Zuheir Mohsen is nowehere an Arab leader except for people like you who love to quote him.

            You guys are selective when it comes to Arab leadership, right?

            Reply to Comment
    5. Juliet kennedy

      Wonderfully written and informative article. Education is the way forward to begin to make amends for tragedy that is Nakba. Thank you.

      Reply to Comment
      • Lewis from Afula

        I agree with you, Juliet.
        My own caveat, is that 972 magazine also includes the tragedy of the Jewish Nakba in its narrative.

        Reply to Comment
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