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'Creeping annexation' is a distraction from the one-state reality

A proposed law to ‘annex’ dozens of settlements to Jerusalem is just one step toward normalizing a reality that has been in the making for decades.

There is not a single Israeli politician today calling for the wholesale annexation of the West Bank. The number of politicians working to advance piecemeal annexation, however, is growing by the day.

Take the proposed Greater Jerusalem law, making its way through Israel’s parliament at the moment. The bill, which would extend Jerusalem’s municipal umbrella over dozens of West Bank settlements along with well over 100,000 settlers, wouldn’t really annex the settlements to Jerusalem. In a way, it actually does the reverse: it annexes Jerusalem to the settlements.

While the new “residents” would be given a right to vote in Jerusalem municipal elections in order to achieve an astounding feat of gerrymandering, their existing settlement municipalities will actually remain intact — subject to Israeli military law, as opposed to Israeli civilian law that applies to Jerusalem and the illegally annexed eastern half of the city.

In other words, the drafters of this law were careful to ensure that it doesn’t qualify as either formal or de facto annexation, irrespective of what it reality looks like on the ground.

And that’s the point.

The proponents of annexation within the Israeli establishment understand perfectly well that the world isn’t ready to accept the formal annexation of the West Bank right now.

“This is a process,” annexation proponent and senior minister in the Israeli government Naftali Bennett explained at the Brookings Institute a few years ago. “I’m not suggesting that, you know, one day in midday we just [annex]. There’s a process of changing the global view of what’s going on here and it has to start with that… And it takes time. It’s an uphill battle.”

That’s exactly what the Jerusalem bill is meant to accomplish: to normalize the idea of annexation — the idea that Israel can unilaterally redraw boundaries to include and exclude certain population groups (Jewish and Arab, respectively), and claim as its own whatever territory it pleases.

Of course, that’s what the situation looks like today.

The facts on the ground were set a long, long time ago. Israeli governments representing both sides of the political map have for decades declared that those same settlements mentioned in the Greater Jerusalem bill, so-called “consensus” settlements and blocs, are off the...

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Senior official urges Israelis to carry more guns following Fatah-Hamas accord

Public Security Minister Gilad Erdan has a unique response to the deal ending a decade of political, geographic and societal Palestinian divisions.

The Israeli government’s response to the deal was among the tamest it has ever directed toward anything including the word Hamas, namely that Israel won’t conduct “diplomatic relations” with a Palestinian government including Hamas unless it fulfills half a dozen conditions.

Public Security Minister Gilad Erdan, however, took the cake with his prescription for how to cope with the reconciliation deal ending a decade of political and geographic Palestinian divisions: encouraging Israeli civilians to carry more guns.

According to a Ynet report, the comments were made at a dedication ceremony for a new firearms licensing center in Ramleh, outside of Tel Aviv. Right. Because if the strongest military in the Middle East — which has proven, time and again, that it can reign massive death destruction on the Islamic group — can’t deter Hamas, a few hundred handguns in the suburbs of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem will surely get the job done.

 

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Netanyahu compares human rights groups to Russian election interference

The prime minister is trying to turn human rights and anti-occupation groups into a subversive boogie monster, this time by conflating them with Western democracy’s contemporary super-villain — Russian election interference. What if he’s right?

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu conflated European Union funding for human rights groups in Israel with Russian interference in U.S. elections, according to a report in Haaretz Sunday. The comments came in the context of a government a decision to form a parliamentary committee to investigate the funding of left-wing, mostly human rights organizations.

Asked whether there is any precedent for a parliamentary committee interfering in the affairs of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), “Netanyahu responded affirmatively, citing the example of the U.S. congressional investigation into Russian interference in America’s 2016 presidential election,” according to the report, which cited people who were in the closed meeting.

Israeli rights groups are required by law to fully disclose the sources of their funding, making their activities and backers fully transparent and above-ground; they have not been accused of breaking any laws. Alleged Russian interference in the U.S. presidential elections, on the other hand, was covert and would appear to have violated innumerable American laws.

A more appropriate comparison might be between the strikingly similar ways the Netanyahu and Putin governments vilify NGOs in their respective countries.

The Netanyahu government and the right-wing parties that comprise it have long put their crosshairs on human rights organizations in Israel, which for the most part focus their work on Israel’s 50-year occupation of the Palestinian territories and the human and civil rights violations it leads to.

Numerous right-wing public campaigns over the years — which included selectively targeted legislation — have focused on the fact that most human and civil rights organizations in Israel receive at least some funding from foreign governments (mostly European, but also the United States). These campaigns, and the politicians behind them, have sought to cast Israeli human rights organizations and their employees as foreign agents working to advance the sinister agendas of hostile states, despite the fact that most of the money comes from Israel’s closest allies.

The aim — and the result — has been to portray of human and civil rights as subversive ideas being used by foreign, presumably anti-Semitic powers to undermine the State of Israel itself. That last feat is accomplished by conflating the State of Israel with...

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EU border monitors have been waiting to go back to Gaza for 10 years

Gaza’s Rafah border may reopen soon now that Fatah and Hamas have agreed to a reconciliation deal. But that doesn’t mean that the EU mission, which has been sitting and waiting near Tel Aviv at a cost of millions of euros a year, will be going back to work anytime soon.

For the past 10 years, a group of European Union border monitors has been waiting inside Israel for the elusive, far-off moment when they can redeploy to the Gaza Strip, to supervise the border crossing separating Gaza and Egypt.

If the reconciliation deal between Palestinian factions Fatah and Hamas signed in Cairo Thursday survives and is implemented, those 10 years of waiting — and the millions of euros spent waiting — could simply vanish into thin air.

The European Union Border Assistance Mission Rafah, or EUBAM as it is known, was created in 2005 — after Israel withdrew its military from the Gaza Strip — to support the implementation of a bilateral agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. EUBAM was supposed to monitor the PA-run border crossing, run up until that point by Israel, and operate a nearby liaison center where Israeli, EU and Palestinian officials monitored everything that went on at the Rafah crossing.

In theory, the arrangement with the European monitors was supposed to be the first time in history that Palestinians controlled any international border leading in and out of Palestinian territory. In reality, Israel maintained ultimate control over the border crossing. Israeli control was maintained by defining who could pass through and even vetoing individual travelers, but also going so far as to force the entire border closed by refusing to let the EU monitors travel from their home base in Ashkelon into the Gaza Strip.

Nevertheless, the Rafah border was open for all but two days during the first seven months of EUBAM’s deployment, with over 1,300 passengers crossing it each day. Then Hamas captured Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit, Israel re-occupied a strip of land inside Gaza along the Egyptian border, and the crossing was open less than one-quarter of the time in the year that followed. When Hamas ousted Fatah from Gaza in 2007, the border officially closed and it has not regularly operated since.

Instead of returning home, however, the European monitors held steady. For the past 10 years EUBAM has maintained its force in Israel, first in Ashkelon and now headquartered...

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Israeli body that accredits journalists honored for propaganda

The official Israeli government body that accredits journalists has just been honored by the country’s PR association for enhancing Israel’s image abroad. Anyone who values an independent and free press should be alarmed.

The government bureau responsible for accrediting journalists in Israel was honored last month by Israel’s association of public relations professionals for its work promoting government propaganda, known cordially as “hasbara,” or “public diplomacy.” The Government Press Office, which is a division of the Israeli Prime Minister’s Office, was presented the certificate of appreciation at the Israel Public Relations Association’s annual “Roaring Lion” awards ceremony.

In an announcement published on the GPO’s website (Hebrew), the press accreditation body cites its own “innovative and creative actions to advance Israeli hasbara and presenting ‘the whole picture of Israel.’” The GPO announcement goes on to cite its “professional and courteous service” vis-à-vis the foreign press corps in Israel, along with “dealing with coverage biased against the State of Israel,” adding praise for its work “initiating articles that present a face of Israel beyond the conflict.”

Anyone who values an independent and free press should be alarmed that the official state body that accredits journalists, and without whose permission foreign journalists cannot work in Israel, is being honored for influencing journalistic coverage. Along with a Military Censor that at-least-partially redacts one in five articles that cross its desk, and out-of-control judicial gag orders that have tripled in recent years, the GPO is just one of several ways the Israeli government is able to influence what information is reported, how it is reported, and who can report it.

As I wrote last year:

Carrying a GPO card gives journalists access to official events, the scenes of newsworthy incidents, is often a condition for cooperation from official spokespeople, and offers protection from arrest while covering protests. In other words, government accreditation makes reporting much safer and more effective. (Foreign journalists must have the GPO’s endorsement in order to even receive a visa to work in Israel.)

But by giving itself the power to decide who is a legitimate journalist, the GPO (which operates as part of the Prime Minister’s Office) also inherently gets to decide who is not a legitimate journalist. And as with any decision made by government bureaucrats subordinate to politicians, such decisions can at times be driven by political considerations.

That has been true in the past and under...

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Forget Friedman. The State Dept doesn't know how much of the West Bank is occupied either

While disavowing the American ambassador’s erroneous assertion that only 2% of the West Bank is occupied by Israel, the State Department spokesperson isn’t able to answer how much of the territory is actually occupied. (Hint: All of it.)

U.S. Ambassador to Israel David Friedman caused a small stir Thursday by erroneously stating that Israel only occupies 2 percent of the West Bank. The Israeli army rules over the entirety of the West Bank under military law, of course, making it 100-percent occupied.

The truth of the matter is that nobody took Friedman’s remarks all that seriously, although the whole affair made for some great headlines. Despite being the White House’s official envoy to Israel, Friedman is known for speaking for himself instead of in his official capacity. So nobody was too surprised.

What was surprising, was that when asked to clarify, the State Department itself could not — or would not — answer how much of the West Bank actually is occupied by Israel.

In an exchange with Associated Press reporter Matt Lee at the State Department’s daily press briefing Thursday, Spokesperson Heather Nauert disavowed Friedman’s comments, stating multiple times that Friedman’s version of reality does not indicate a shift in U.S. policy.

Then things got weird.

Here is a transcript of the exchange (Video, from 25:00 minutes):

Matt Lee: [A]mbassadors to every country are supposed to speak for and with the authority of the President of the United States. Do you not see that this is causing confusion?

And then as a purely factual matter, how much of – what percent of the West Bank does the United – does the administration believe is occupied?

Heather Nauert: I don’t know that we have a map of that or that we have —

Lee: You’ve got a lot of maps on that.

Nauert: Do we have a lot of maps?

Lee: Oh, yeah.

Nauert: Do we?

Lee: Yes.

Nauert: Okay. Well, see, you all pre-date me here. I’ll go pull out some —

Lee: Heather, do you —

Nauert: — the dusty shelves.

Lee: You have many, many, many, many maps.

***

There you have it. Somewhere on the dusty shelves of Foggy Bottom, there are many, many maps that might be able...

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Netanyahu vows to never remove settlements. Why won’t the world believe him?

It’s as if the entire international community administered itself a potent dose of willful suspension of disbelief, enabling its leaders to ignore Bibi’s declarations that he will never take the requisite steps for peace — that he will do everything in his power to prevent the establishment of a Palestinian state.

For years, decades actually, the world has inexplicably given Benjamin Netanyahu the benefit of the doubt that, despite endless declarations to the contrary, he is interested and willing to end the occupation and enter into a peace accord that results in the creation of a Palestinian state.

This week, at an official Israeli government ceremony celebrating 50 years of Israeli settlements in the West Bank, which itself should set off alarm bells for anyone suspicious of the Netanyahu government’s intentions, the prime minister vowed to never again remove another Jewish settlement from the occupied territory.

“We have brought about magnificent settlement in Judea and Samaria that we are maintaining and strengthening – responsibly, wisely and persistently,” Netanyahu said in his speech celebrating the settlement movement. “I tell you clearly and before anything: There will be no more uprooting of communities in the Land of Israel!”

This latest declaration joins the handful of times in recent years that Netanyahu has promised never to withdraw Israeli military forces from the West Bank, and openly stated that no Palestinian state will be born on his watch. Going back even further, we have seen video of Netanyahu bragging about how he sabotaged the implementation of the Oslo Accords during his first term as prime minister.

And yet, perhaps because there has been no other game in town for nearly a decade, the world continues to engage the Israeli prime minister about peace and Palestinian statehood. It’s not just that the world entertains Netanyahu’s attempts to move the goalposts in order to ensure peace remains out of reach, by constantly adding new preconditions and demands every time he is worried some progress might be made.

It’s as if the entire international community got together and agreed to administer itself a potent dose of willful suspension of disbelief, enabling world leaders to ignore Netanyahu’s unmistakably clear declarations that he will never implement the requisite steps for peace — that he will do everything in his power to prevent the establishment of a Palestinian state.

It would be very uncomfortable for most world leaders...

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Israel's top court rules human rights aren't 'controversial.' What about the occupation?

As the pro-peace camp has shrunk into oblivion, human rights groups have become the only real anti-occupation force in Israel today. That has made them uncomfortably political.

Israel’s High Court of Justice on Wednesday ruled that equality and human rights are not, or should not be, controversial in Israel.

“[It is difficult to accept] the idea that a commercial promoting human rights could be socially or politically controversial,” wrote Justice Anat Baron. “The recognition of and commitment to human rights are intrinsically linked to the very existence of a democratic society.”

The honorable justice must have missed Israeli Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked’s speech to the Israel Bar Association a couple of weeks earlier, in which she decried and called for and end to, “the system of individual rights interpreted in a universal way.”

The Supreme Court justices who declared human rights uncontroversial must have also missed Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s policy pledge earlier this summer to effectively defund nearly every human rights group operating in Israel.

The court must have been paying attention to more pressing matters over the past few years as the Israeli government, or at least most of it, embarked on a concerted and sustained campaign to paint those who support human rights as foreign agents serving nefarious and seditious agendas.

Perhaps the good judges did not review the results of a 2016 public opinion survey, by +972 Magazine’s own Dr. Dahlia Scheindlin, which found that only 45 percent of Jewish Israelis had a favorable opinion of “human rights.” Asked specifically about human rights “organizations,” those favorability numbers dropped to 31 percent — a marked deterioration from a similar survey conducted five years earlier.

Tellingly, among those who identify as right wing, only 25 percent support human rights groups in general, and only 5 percent expressed support for human rights groups that serve Palestinians.

Not controversial?

The case that led the Supreme Court to rule that human rights aren’t, or shouldn’t be controversial, was about whether Israel’s oldest civil rights organization, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI) could air an advertisement on public television promoting International Human Rights Day. The public broadcaster had taken issue with and pulled the ad, in which a number of Israeli celebrities discuss civil and human rights that are important to them.

Public broadcasting regulations in Israel prohibit advertisements...

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PA security forces arrest prominent human rights activist Issa Amro

Palestinian authorities reportedly arrested Amro, an activist with Youth Against Settlements, for criticizing the PA in a Facebook post. Amro, who is also facing charges in Israeli military court for his political activism, has been recognized by the EU and UN as a human rights defender.

Palestinian security forces arrested human rights defender and well-known Palestinian activist Issa Amro in the West Bank city of Hebron on Monday. The arrest was reportedly related to a Facebook post published by Amro, in which he criticized the Palestinian Authority for arresting a journalist a day earlier.

Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas recently signed an “Electronic Crimes” decree, effectively curtailing the little free speech that existed for Palestinians under Palestinian law, and which was believed to target online dissent against the PA, particularly on social media. The new law was roundly criticized by rights groups in Palestine and around the world. Israel also regularly arrests Palestinians for posts on social media.

The Palestinian Preventative Security Service (PSS) summoned Amro, who has been declared a “human rights defender” by the EU and UN, for interrogation about his critical Facebook post on Monday and arrested him at midday.

Amnesty International put out a statement Monday calling for Amro’s immediate release,  saying it was “outrageous that a prominent human rights defender has been arrested simply for voicing his opinion online.”

“Criticizing the authorities should not be a criminal offence,” said Magdalena Mughrabi, deputy director for the Middle East and North Africa at Amnesty. “Issa Amro’s arrest is the latest evidence that the Palestinian authorities are determined to continue with their repressive campaign against free speech.”

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights also published a statement Monday expressing concern at Amro’s arrest and urging his release.

Last month, Palestinian security forces arrested a large number of journalists in what appeared to be a campaign targeting members of the press working for outlets affiliated with political rivals of Fatah, Mahmoud Abbas’s party.

Amro gave the following statement prior to his arrest to a colleague at Youth Against Settlements, the Hebron-based group he co-founded, during which he sounded a defiant tone.

“All my writings on social media are part of the freedom of opinion and expression stipulated by the Palestinian Basic Law and are protected by all international laws and conventions,” Amro said, according to a press release Youth...

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Israel is systematically revoking Arabs' citizenship. Don't act surprised

Hundreds if not thousands of Bedouin are having their citizenship revoked seemingly for no reason, according to ‘Haaretz.’ Shocking as it may be, it’s not surprising. Citizenship has never provided non-Jewish Israelis with the same security it gives their Jewish compatriots.

Imagine going to renew your passport or change your official address and after a few minutes of pattering on a keyboard without looking up to see the human being in front of him or her, a government clerk informs you that you are no longer a citizen of the only country you have ever known. The country of your birth.

And no, it’s not that your citizenship is being revoked, the clerk calmly explains. It’s not like that. You were never a citizen in the first place, you see, it was all a mistake — never mind the fact that you were born in Israel to parents who are Israeli citizens, and your siblings are Israeli citizens, and maybe you even served in the Israeli army.

Hundreds if not thousands of Bedouin citizens of Israel have undergone that exact terrifying experience in recent years, according to a report by Jack Khoury in Haaretz Friday.

The Kafqesque ordeal, to which Jewish Israelis are exempt, is part of a policy in which one’s citizenship is re-adjudicated, without a judge or judicial process of course, every time one comes into contact with an Interior Ministry clerk for the most routine reasons, according to the Haaretz investigation.

The gut-wrenching practice is shocking on the most basic levels. For those of us lucky enough to be citizens of a country, so much of our security in this world comes bundled up with it. Of course, Palestinians and other non-Jews have never had the same level of security attached to their citizenship in Israel as their Jewish compatriots do. Many of them, like the hundreds of thousands of Palestinians from East Jerusalem, don’t even have citizenship to begin with.

As shocking as the Haaretz report is, nobody should be surprised. The Israeli prime minister has openly declared his belief that some, namely Arab, Israeli citizens should be stripped of their citizenship for making political statements not to his liking. A senior government minister recently threatened a “third Nakba,” referencing the largely forced displacement of 700,000 Palestinians in 1948. And then there was the landmark ruling earlier this month actually stripping...

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After record five-month closure, Egypt opens Gaza crossing for five days

The five-month closure of the Rafah crossing was the longest since the blockade began in 2007, according to rights groups. The Israeli army recently added new restrictions for Palestinians hoping to leave Gaza.

Egypt opened the Rafah border crossing this week for the first time in five months. Israel controls the only other way in and out of the Gaza Strip, and has placed more and more restrictions on Palestinians who want to come and go in recent months.

Egypt allowed the passage of pilgrims, humanitarian cases, and Gazans stranded in Egypt to pass through the border this week. The border closed again on Friday, after five days, according to Gaza-based Palestinian news site PalToday. There are a reported 30,000 Palestinians on a waiting list to leave the Strip via Egypt.

The five-month closure of Rafah marked the longest consecutive closure since 2007, according to Gisha, an Israeli organization that promotes Palestinian freedom of movement. Between 2011 and 2013, around 40,000 people crossed the border to and from Egypt every month, according to the rights group.

Egypt clamped down on the border following that country’s military coup which ousted President Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood, a political movement affiliated with Hamas, which rules over the Gaza Strip.

Israel has also vastly reduced the number of Gazans it allows to leave the besieged coastal enclave recently. According to Gisha, the number of Palestinians who exited Gaza via Israel dropped 55 percent in the first half of 2017, from a monthly average of 14,000 in the first half of 2016 to 6,302 a year later.

In addition, Israel also recently imposed new restrictions on how long Gazans can leave and what they can bring with them. Earlier this month, the Israeli army banned Palestinians leaving the Strip from bringing with them any electronic devices other than cellular phones, any food, and any toiletries. This week, The Times of Israel reported that Israel was also making Palestinians leaving Gaza sign an agreement saying that they will not return for a year.

This year marks a decade since the start of Israel’s siege on the Gaza Strip. Despite the 2006 withdrawal of settlers and ground troops, the Israeli army controls Gaza’s airspace and territorial waters, as well as all of its land crossings save for Rafah, controlled by Egypt and closed on all but the rarest of...

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Palestinian journalists the latest victim of Hamas-Fatah rivalry

Fatah-affiliated security forces arrest five journalists in the West Bank; Hamas forces are holding at least one journalist in Gaza. Palestinian rights groups demand both parties keep journalists out of their political rivalry.

Palestinian Authority security services arrested five Palestinian journalists in the West Bank Tuesday night in what appears to be a worrying manifestation of escalating tensions between Fatah and Hamas.

Fatah-aligned PA security forces accused the five journalists of “leaking sensitive information to hostile parties,” presumably Hamas, according to a report on the official Palestinian Authority news agency WAFA Wednesday. Several of the arrested journalists work for Hamas-affiliated news outlets.

WAFA also published a parallel report on Wednesday about Hamas security forces arresting and detaining two journalists, at least one of whom works for a Fatah-aligned media outlet. One of the two, Fouad Jaradeh, has been imprisoned for two months by Hamas, which accuses him of collaborating with the Palestinian Authority government in Ramallah, according to a Gaza-based rights group.

The idea that rival political groups are targeting journalists because of their affiliation with either Fatah or Hamas is particularly troubling.

+972 Special Coverage: Censorship and Press Freedom

In a statement published Wednesday, the Palestinian Center for Development and Media Freedoms (MADA), “call[ed] on the Palestinian security services in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to stop the policy of arresting journalists, and keep these journalists far from the internal political division and their internal frictions.”

The split between Fatah and Hamas has escalated in recent months, most notably when Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas (Fatah) cut off funding for the Hamas-run Gaza Strip’s electricity supply, making an already dire humanitarian situation even worse.

Hamas then made a deal with Abbas’s arch-rival, Mohammad Dahlan, to help the Gaza-based group broker better relations and an alternative source of electricity with Egypt.

MADA condemned the latest arrests of Palestinian journalists as “part of a marked escalation of violations against media freedoms and a blatant violation of the Palestinian Basic Law, which protects freedom of expression and the press.”

The Palestinian Center for Human Rights (PCHR) also expressed concern that internal Palestinian political rivalries “is descending to a very dangerous situation, where the basic rights are denied and public freedoms are totally undermined.”

“PCHR follows with concern the measures taken by the authorities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip,...

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The Israeli judge who decided certain Arabs are predisposed to violence

Arab citizens with one parent from the occupied territories are more likely to commit acts of violence, an Israeli judge claims, in order to justify stripping the citizenship of Alaa Zayoud.

An Israeli court revoked the citizenship of an Israeli citizen on Sunday, setting the stage for a constitutional challenge to a 2008 law that allows the state to strip citizenship from anyone convicted of terrorism-related crimes. Alaa Zayoud, who was convicted of four counts of attempted murder for a 2015 vehicular and stabbing attack, will be left stateless on October 31, 2017 if the ruling is not overturned. Zayoud’s case is the first time the 2008 law has been used.

But the case of Alaa Zayoud is about more than the revocation of one person’s citizenship. It also dives head first into the myriad of statuses Israel assigns Palestinians living under its control, through which it determines what rights they have and according to which laws and standards to hold them.

In a 30-page judgment, Haifa District Court Judge Avraham Elyakim places Alaa Zayoud into a subset of Israeli citizens that was contrived by the Shin Bet; these people, he says, require more deterrence than the rest of the Israeli population. Thus he justifies the extreme step of revoking Zayoud’s citizenship.

Adopting the Shin Bet’s language, Judge Elyakim describes Zayoud, who was born in Israel to an Israeli-citizen mother and therefore automatically became an Israeli citizen at birth, as a “second-generation child of family unification.” In other words, Zayoud’s father is a Palestinian from the West Bank who was granted residency in Israel by virtue of his marriage to Zayoud’s mother.

“Intelligence gathered in interrogations of ‘second-generation children of family unification’ shows that despite being born and raised as Israeli citizens, they still retain a Palestinian identity and they see the State of Israel as an enemy state that is in conflict with their people,” Judge Elyakim wrote in his judgment, citing a Shin Bet expert opinion. By virtue of having family on both sides of the Green Line, he continued, such people are exposed to a culture that “doesn’t reject” terrorism or violence against the Israeli public.

“Under such circumstances, ‘second generation children of family unification’ live with an ‘identity tension’ between different societies. That leads to Palestinian loyalty and nationalist triggers which increase their willingness to carry out acts of terror,” Elyakim continues. Revoking citizenship...

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